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Terms - A

  • Accesslist

    A list according to which a router controls an access to individual services.

  • ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

    A technology providing for an asynchronous transmission along one copper pair (to a distance up to 4 kilometres). It was designed to have a wider transmission band for downstream (i.e. towards the user) than upstream (i.e. towards the provider). The downstream transmission rate may be up to 8 Mbit/s while the upstream one may vary between 16 kbit/s and 640 kbit/s.

  • Alias

    Generally, the second or alternate name that is used as an alternative tool for references to another object (it may sometimes be shorter or better accessible). An alias is used as a sort of abbreviation in telecommunications as well as in a number of routine commercial programs.

  • Anonymous FTP

    An Internet service that is provided by several thousand Internet servers all over the world. It principle is to provide files to any Internet user. Anonymous FTP means that one needs no special access rights allocated in order to access such server and use its content (or its part at least) as it is open to anyone. The user logs in under the name “anonymous” or “FTP” and enters its e-mail address as a password. Servers usually archive these entries or use them for statistical purposes. However, if you enter a wrong (but syntactically valid) e-mail address the system lets you in. Most of the world's FTP servers are anonymous providing that there is reserved just a part of the server to anonymous users only. This is comprised of address trees /pub (public for downloading files from the server) and /incoming (incoming for saving files to the server in order to enable other users to download them). Other directories are either hidden or inaccessible; they may appear or be accessible if the user is allocated the pertinent access rights.

  • ANSI – American National Standards Institute

    An organisation that co-ordinates standardisation activities of the U.S. private sector with respect to telecommunications and computer networks.

  • AoC – Advice Of Charge

    Call billing information for ISDN connections. With AoC a public ISDN exchange sends through the D channel exact information as to how many impulses were used during the call.

  • Application

    A general term for a computer program or set of computer programs that serve a pertinent purpose. The term application quite often coincides with the term program; generally, the program has got a lower standing, i.e. it is used within the area of performing smaller, universal and rather utility functions, while the applications comprise larger program packages that are to execute far more complex tasks. Applications are identified by the industry and type of OS (operating system) under which they run, and sometimes also by their complexity level.

  • Asynchronous

    This means “with varying frequency”. In computer terminology, this term often applies to the data stream that is not controlled by a fixed clock frequency.

  • Asynchronous Communication

    A data communication method wherein the data are sent on a bit-by-bit basis and are not controlled by a clock signal. Synchronous communication is just the opposite. Also used is the term asynchronous transmission. The term is sometimes reduced to mere data transmission through the asynchronous method.

  • ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode

    A broadband transmission technology used for switching fixed-length (53-byte) cells. The fixed cell length provides for fast processing by a switching hardware during their transmission through an ATM network. Given their features, the ATM is slated for multimedia transmissions and data-voice-video integration. It is currently one of the most efficient technologies within the telecommunication industry. It is popular as a backbone technology on LAN and WAN networks.

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