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  • X.25

    A recommendation specifying the access communication protocol between the subscriber's terminal equipment and access node of the packet data network. This recommendation comprises the physical, line and network layers of the OSI model. In contrast to an ordinary serial line, the X.25 protocol has usually been operated at a synchronous mode and at a higher transmission rate. The basic “electric” Layer 1 should be consistent with any of the recommendations as follows: V.10 (asymmetric signals) or V.11 (symmetric signals), sometimes with V.24 or V.28. Higher layers are based on HDLC and LAP-B. The possibility of simultaneous communication with several destinations is the basic advantage (similarly to on an Ethernet network or while using IP). The X.25 protocol ensures secure traffic on any service availability level, which leads to increased overheads in case of terminated connections but also provides the communicating end users with an option to drop off error checking of the applications on exchange networks and thereby to simplify the function of servers.

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